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全球供应链中协调策略及激励机制研究
时间:2011-03-05 浏览次数:1257次 无忧论文网
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技术经济及管理
物流与供应链管理物流与供应链管理
    随着信息技术的飞速发展及技术变革的加快,以生产全球化为首要特征的经济全球化已成为当今世界经济活动中最为突出的趋势。众多企业为在激烈的市场竞争中保持优势,合作伙伴的选择已不再局限于本国,通过组建全球供应链,在全球范围内寻找合作方,实现资源的最佳配置。参与到全球供应链中的企业既要实现自身内部的优化运作,更要处理好与上下游企业间的合作关系,所以协调管理成为全球供应链企业间实现良性运作的重要手段。
    本文首先回顾了全球供应链产生的背景,用比较优势理论、规模经济理论和竞争优势理论对全球供应链的发展加以解释,并在此基础上讨论实施全球供应链的协调原因,同时定义了全球供应链协调的概念。本文提出全球供应链协调可以采用三种策略:合作伙伴策略、信息共享策略和激励机制策略,并对激励机制策略进行深入研究。
    在博弈论和委托代理论理论思想的指导下,以一个位于两个国家的制造商和分销商组成的二级全球供应链关系为对象,建立了全球供应链协调策略下的激励机制模型,并根据全球供应链的特征充分考虑转让价格、运输成本分摊比例及汇率在协调中所起的重要作用,分析风险厌恶程度、努力成本系数、市场随机因素和能力水平系数这四个因素对制造商选择激励系数、分销商采取努力程度和制造商收益、分销商收益及供应链整体收益的影响。通过模型的建立和求解,并利用相关的数值算例对其进行分析,计算结果说明,本文建立的激励机制模型能在保证制造商和分销商自身利益最大化的前提下,实现全球供应链整体利益最优,提出的激励机制模型在一定条件下能够达到良好的供应链协调效果。
    论文最后对建立的激励机制模型做了进一步的探讨,从几个不同角度将模型进行扩展,并给出进一步研究的方向。 [英文摘要]:     With the rapid development of information technology and acceleration of technological change, economic globalization, the most remarkable characteristic of which is production globalization, has become the most outstanding tendency of current economic activities in the world. By means of the establishment of global supply chain(GSC), enterprises can choose business partners globally which can help them achieve the optimal global resource allocation. As to obtain operation optimization, enterprises participating in GSC should properly handle the cooperation among business partners. Therefore, coordination comes up to be one of the most important components of GSC for better operational performance.
    In this study, we first review the background of GSC and explain the development of GSC by using the theory of Comparative Advantage, Economies of Scale and Competitive Advantage. Based on these concepts above, we discuss the reasons for GSC coordination and the definition of GSC coordination is given. GSC coordination strategies can be carried out in different ways, such as the Strategy of Cooperated Partners, the Strategy of Information Sharing and the Strategy of Incentive Mechanism. Secondly, by using Game Theory and Principle-agent Theory, an Incentive Mechanism Model is established to carry out in-depth study in Strategy of Incentive Mechanism. According to the characteristics of GSC, we consider the important functions of transfer price, transportation cost-sharing ratio and exchange in the model, and analyze the roles that each factor such as risk aversion, market random and so on play in GSC coordination. The approaches and results of the numerical examples show that the Incentive Mechanism Model proposed in the study achieves nice effect in GSC coordination under certain conditions.
    Finally, we develop a further extension of the Incentive Mechanism Model from several different perspectives and further research are presented.    
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