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轮机英语中IF条件句的TAM研究
时间:2015-02-24 浏览次数:1099次 无忧论文网
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【中文题名】 轮机英语中IF条件句的TAM研究 【英文题名】 TAM of If-conditionals in Marine Engineering English 【中文摘要】 在阅读和分析大量有关文献资料的基础上,作者对英语谓语动词的时、体、情态(Tense-Aspect-Modal)形式作了系统的归纳和总结,分列四组有标志与无标志的对照形式。 应用计算机程序对轮机英语(MEE)语料库中由IF引导的条件句中的各种组合形式的出现频率和分布状况进行统计,发现在该结构中无标志形式出现的频率远远超过了有标志形式。与新闻英语(Brown-A,LOB-A)、航海英语(NEC)、海事条约英语(MTE)及技术英语(T4)五个库的一系列卡方(Chi-square)测试结果表明MEE在由IF引导的条件句的谓语动词的TAM形式的分布方面与NEC最近而与MTE相异最远。各种形 【英文摘要】 This paper is a report of a computer-aided investigation into the Tense-Aspect-Modal system of the finite verb phrases in the if-conditionals in Marine Engineering English. With an overview of the literature, especially of the latest researches on the English verb system, a simple TAM framework is proposed in which the marked and unmarked TAM forms are in contrast. A systematic description of the gross frequencies and the distribution of the TAM forms is given after the encoded files are processed with 【中文关键词】 时. 体. 情态动词. IF条件句. 卡方测试. 【英文关键词】 Tense. Aspect. Modal. If-conditional. Chi-square. 英文摘要 006-7 Abstract (Chinese) 7-8 Abbreviations 8-9 Chapter 1 Introduction 9-15 1.1 Research Goals 9-9 1.2 The Data 9-10 1.3 Procedures and Techniques 10-14 1.3.1 Procedures 10-11 1.3.2 Coding 11-13 1.3.3 Computer Programs Used in the Research 13-16 1.4 Layout of the Paper 14-15 Chapter 2 Theoretical Considerations 15-46 2.1 Time and Tense 15-16 2.2 Tense and Aspect 16-23 2.2.1 Traditional Definitions 16-17 2.2.1.1 Tense 16-17 2.2.1.2 Aspect 17-18 2.2.2 Recent Interpretations 17-23 2.2.2.1 Truth Conditional Approach 18-20 2.2.2.2 Cognitive Approach 20-36 2.3 Modality 23-26 2.3.1 Modal Auxiliaries 23-24 2.3.2 Types of Modality 24-25 2.3.3 Temporal Interpretation 25-27 2.4 If-conditionals 26-29 2.4.1 Basic forms 27-27 2.4.2 Conditional Types 27-28 2.4.3 TAM in If-conditionals 28-28 2.4.4 Temporal Interpretation 28-29 2.5 Discussions 29-34 2.5.1 Future-Tense or Modality 29-30 2.5.2 HAVE V.-en-Tense or Aspect 30-31 2.5.3 Aspectual Character 31-32 2.5.4 Actuality 32-34 2.6 Framework Adopted in This Study 34-46 2.6.1 Linguistic Philosophy 34-35 2.6.2 Construction of Finite Verb Phrases 35-36 2.6.3 Forms and Meanings 36-51 2.6.3.1 Contrast of Past and Non-past Tenses 36-38 2.6.3.2 Contrast of Perfect and Non-perfect 38-40 2.6.3.3 Contrast of Progressive and Non-progressive 40-41 2.6.3.4 Contrast of Modal and Non-modal Predications 41-61 Chapter 3 General Findings 46-59 3.1 General Distributions 46-50 3.2 TAM forms in If-clauses 50-55 3.2.1 Distribution of Tense Forms 51-52 3.2.2 Distribution of Aspect Forms 52-53 3.2.3 Modal Auxiliaries 53-57 3.3 TAM of the Matrix Clauses of If-conditionals 55-59 3.3.1 Tense Forms 57-57 3.3.2 Aspect Forms 57-58 3.3.3 Modal Auxiliaries 58-59 Chapter 4 Analysis of TAM of the If-conditionals in MEE 59-84 4.1 Chi-square Test 59-59 4.2 Tense 59-67 4.2.1 Chi-square Tests on Tense Forms 59-60 4.2.2 Exemplification of Tense Forms in MEE 60-67 4.2.2.1 Non-past in Both Clauses 61-64 4.2.2.2 Past Forms in Both Clauses 64-65 4.2.2.3 Different Tense in the Two Clauses 65-70 4.3 Aspects 67-70 4.3.1 Perfect vs. Non-Perfect 67-69 4.3.2 Progressive vs. Non-progressive 69-70 4.4 Modality 70-81 4.4.1 If-clauses 70-73 4.4.1.1 Chi-square Tests 70-70 4.4.1.2 Actual Occurrence 70-73 4.4.2 Matrix Clauses 73-81 4.4.2.1 Chi-square Tests on Gross Frequencies 73-74 4.4.2.2 Actual Occurrence 74-99 4.5 Non-finite Clauses 81-84 4.5.1 Elliptical If-clauses 81-83 4.5.2 Non-finite Matrix Clauses 83-99 Chapter 5 Conclusion 84-89 5.1 General Features of TAM of If-conditionals 84-85 5.2 Particular Characteristics of MEE in Contrast to the Other Five Corpora 85-86 5.3 TAM in MEE 86-87 5.4 Suggestions for Teaching Application and Further Researches 87-99 Reference 89-91 Appendix 91-99 Acknowledgements 99-99
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