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餐厨垃圾的微生物处理与资源化的初步研究
时间:2011-02-03 浏览次数:1349次 无忧论文网
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生物
应用与环境微生物应用与环境微生物
    本文针对当前我国餐厨垃圾产量正在快速增长,但处理方式仍然非常落后,对环境存在着极大的危害,并且极易导致禽流感、口蹄疫等传染性疾病的大规模流行,人畜间的交叉感染,已经对人类的健康、社会的稳定构成了极大的威胁这一现实状况,基于循环经济理论,在对城市餐厨垃圾的产量、成分调查的基础上,对城市餐厨垃圾的液态部分以及固态部分进行分别处理研究,一方面利用微生物技术,对餐厨垃圾资源化利用进行了理论和实验研究,探索利用餐厨垃圾制备蛋白饲料的技术路线;另一方面应用微电解、膜生物反应器(MBR)对发酵后的废水深度处理进行了研究。研究取得以下主要结果:
    1. 用多种微生物培养基对餐厨垃圾原位中的微生物进行分离筛选,获得包括霉菌、酵母菌、防线菌、芽孢杆菌等多株菌株。利用产淀粉酶实验、产蛋白酶实验、生长能力实验等从以分离得到得菌株、实验室保藏菌株中获得了能够高效降解餐厨垃圾并产淀粉酶或蛋白酶的菌株。利用形态观察以及生理生化鉴定,其中三株效果最为明显的菌株分别为:紫红曲霉(Monascus purpuresuWent);啤酒酵母葡萄酒变种[S.cerevisiae var. ellipsoideus (Hansen) Dekker];双芽孢杆菌属(Amphibacillus Nijmura et al.,1990)。
    2. 利用筛选获得的高效菌株对餐厨垃圾进行发酵处理,对其发酵条件以及发酵产品的粗蛋白含量、产率等进行了研究。实验结果表明,经过筛选获得的菌株在相同的工艺处理条件下,对餐厨垃圾的降解能力以及获得的产品粗蛋白含量等各方面明显优于其它菌株。餐厨垃圾液态部分经过三株高效菌株混合发酵处理,得到了具有生物活性的微生物菌体蛋白(MBP)饲料14.4 g/L,并且经过发酵处理后餐厨垃圾废水的COD去除率达到了78%左右。
    3. 餐厨垃圾固态部分经过发酵条件优化的研究,找出了最佳的发酵条件。经过微生物的发酵作用使得发酵产品中的粗蛋白含量从22.75%提高到45.3%,比发酵前提高了22.55个百分点;氨基酸态氮含量从3.15%提高到6.09%,比发酵前提高了2.94个百分点。蛋白质消化率得到了提高,各种氨基酸的组份也更加平衡,并且富含有多种维生素类物质和酶类、芽孢、酵母菌分泌的营养物质、免疫因子以及大量的益生菌。
    4. 利用微电解、混凝、膜生物反应器组合作用对发酵后的餐厨垃圾废水的深度处理工艺进行了初步研究。利用正交实验以及单因素考察实验,分析得出微电解最佳处理工艺为:pH=3、反应时间30 min、填料B,经过进一步混凝沉淀处理,COD的去处率达到53%,NH3-N的去处率达到66%。B/C由电解前的0.34提高到0.39,废水的生化性得到了提高,对于进一步的生化处理极为有利。pH值也由4.0提高到了9.0,更加适合后续的厌氧膜生物反应器处理。
    5. 废水进一步经过膜生物反应器处理,最终COD的浓度降低到(100±20) mg/L,NH3-N的浓度降低到(25±5) mg/L,实现了达标排放。
    通过实验研究,我们真正的实现了对餐厨垃圾废弃物的循环利用与零污染处理,本研究是对循环经济理论的实际应用,对循环经济理论以及我国现实环境污染等问题具有重要的理论及现实意义。 [英文摘要]:     This paper presented a new technical flow for realizing reuse and recycle of kitchen garbage. There are two main objectives we possess in the research. One is transforming kitchen garbage into animal feed by microbial ferrmentation. The other is to deal with waste water after microbial fermentation by combination of micro-electrochemical process and anaerobic membrane bio-reactor. The main results are as the follows:
    1. The high protein content of kitchen garbage has led to intensive research in the field of waste recycling and bioengineering aspects of fermentation feed. In this study, 20 strains were isolated from kitchen garbage simples. Three of them were able to grow well on medium of kitchen garbage and had the bioactivity to produce amylase or protease. Biochemical and physical test demonstrated that the three strains belonged to Monascus purpuresu Went, S.cerevisiae var. ellipsoideus (Hansen) Dekker, and Amphibacillus Nijmura et al., 1990。
    2. The strain protein obtained from fermentation is a high grade animal feed. The results showed that liquid fermentation by MJ1+JM3+YB8 was achived with microbiology protein (MBP) feed 14.4 g/L, the COD removal efficiency arrive at 78%。
    3. The cultivation condition of strains and fermenting condition of kitchen garbage were studied. The results showed that successful fermentation by MJ1+JM3, inoculate quantity 2.0 %, fermentation temperature 33 ℃, fermentation time 96h, 6 layers pledget was achieved with the crude protein concentration increasing from originally 22.75 % to 45.3 %, the amino-acid nitrogen concentration increasing from 3.15% to 6.09%. The product obtained from the wastes fermentation showed high assimilation efficiency, balanced amino acid composition and is rich in vitamin, enzyme, nutrition, immunity factor and abundant probiotics.
    4. The waste water after fermentation was treated by the combination electrochemical process and anaerobic membrane bio-reactor. High treatment efficiency have been obtained by the process of micro-electrolyse: COD removal efficiency was reach up to 53%, NH3-N was 66%.
    5. The results indicated that the treatment of anaerobic membrane bio-reactor was successful: COD and NH3-N were reduced to (100±20) mg/l and (25±5) mg/L, which accorded with the national criterion of waste water discharge.
    The use of biotechnological processes in the field of kitchen garbage recycling and transformation can be a good way to ensure the safety and reuse of the obtained products.    
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