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网络产业的市场结构、竞争策略与公共政策研究——基于网络效应理论的分析
时间:2011-03-02 浏览次数:1315次 无忧论文网
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网络经济学
网络经济网络经济
    网络的结构特征和信息在网络节点之间的传输交互深刻地影响了经济主体的行为特征和市场的运行规律。网络效应的存在使经济运行过程中呈现出一些不同于传统经济的新特点、新规律,并使其市场竞争表现出一些不同于传统竞争的新现象、新趋势。因此,对网络经济学进行深入的理论分析和多角度的应用研究是具有重要意义的。
    本文以网络产业为研究对象,以网络经济学的核心理论——网络效应理论为线索,以市场结构、竞争策略和公共政策为切入点进行系统性研究。通过对网络效应理论及相关经济规律的系统性阐述,剖析网络产业市场结构的特殊性及其原因,解读厂商各种竞争策略背后的经济动因及其对市场运行的影响,并提出相关公共政策的框架性建议,旨在为厂商在市场博弈中不断优化竞争策略起到指导作用,为政府有效及时地纠正市场失灵、避免政府失灵,从而达到最大化社会利益的目标提供参考建议。
    根据研究框架,本文从网络效应基础理论的经典文献、网络效应的多角度应用研究、网络效应实证研究以及国内网络效应研究四个角度对现有文献进行回顾和梳理;同时,从网络及网络效应的基本概念和分类出发,对网络效应和网络外部性进行辨析,进而对包括临界容量、正反馈、锁定和路径依赖等网络效应的核心概念和基础理论进行了阐述;之后,分析了网络效应对网络产业市场结构的影响及其具体表现,提出了“新寡头垄断”是市场结构常态的观点,并指出网络产业的垄断形式多样化和市场结构动态演变的新趋势;接着,针对网络产业中厂商层出不穷的新型竞争策略,对动态定价策略、兼容策略、产品策略、质量选择策略、研发策略、捆绑策略及数字版权保护策略等问题进行研究;基于以上分析,分别从标准政策、反垄断政策、知识产权保护政策角度研究网络产业相关的公共政策问题,提出了标准政策的新思路、反垄断政策原则的调整和知识产权保护的总体战略;最后通过一个网络效应的模拟经济实验,考察网络效应、厂商的竞争策略和政府公共政策对理性消费者选择的影响,以检验之前章节中相关理论分析的适用性和局限性。
    本文在国内外网络经济学理论的现有成果基础上展开研究,从以下三个方面进行了一些具有创新性的探索:其一,首次从理论分析和实证检验两个角度对网络产业的市场结构进行研究。一方面,运用产业经济学、网络经济学等相关理论,论证网络产业市场结构的“新寡头垄断”特征;另一方面,运用时间序列分析方法,初步实现了对国内外代表性网络产业市场结构的经验分析。其二,力图以网络效应理论为红线,使用动态最优化、博弈论等现代分析工具,构造系统性较好、一致性较强的系列分析模型,对厂商的新型竞争策略进行前后连贯的综合研究,旨在突破现有大多数成果关注面较窄的瓶颈。其三,基于市场结构和竞争策略分析,提出更具有现实意义和参考价值的政策建议。例如,针对网络产业市场结构的经济特性,指出反垄断政策应摒弃纯粹结构主义原则,并运用战略捆绑模型的相关结论,提出可操作性更强的新时期反垄断政策的实施原则。 [英文摘要]:     The network structure and interaction between nodes have exerted significant influences on the economic behaviors and the market operation. With the existence of network effects, the network economy demonstrates some new characteristics, which are distinctively different from the traditional economy. Hence, in-depth theoretical and applied researches on network economics are of great importance.
    Based on network effects theory, which is the essence of network economics, the thesis systematically studies the economics of network industries, with emphasis on the market structure, competitive strategy and public policy. It analyzes the peculiarity of market structure and its underlying causes, interprets the motivation behind firms’ strategic behaviors and put forward corresponding public policy framework.  It is aimed at providing useful guidance for firms to optimize their strategies in face of fierce competition in the market, and help government remedy market failure and avoid possible government failure, so that the social welfare could be maximized and efficiency loss could be minimized.
    In accordance with the research framework, the thesis conducts the literature review on classic network effects theories, applied research, empirical study and domestic research. It then illustrates the economics of network effects, compares the difference between network effects and network externalities, and explains concepts such as critical mass, positive feedback, lock-in and path-dependence. Next, it analyzes the influence of network effects on market structure and points out that “neo-oligopoly” is common in network industries. The form of monopoly has transformed from independent monopoly to joint monopoly. Then, it studies a variety of newly emerging competitive strategies, such as dynamic pricing, inter-temporal product decision, quality choice, horizontal and vertical compatibility choice, research and development, strategic bundling and digital copyright protection strategies. In order to stimulate the sustained development of network industries, the thesis takes the factor of network effects into consideration and puts forward the policy framework and implementation principles of standard policy, antitrust policy and intellectual property protection policy. Last, it conducts a simulated economic experiment on network effects in order to study the influence of network effects, competitive strategies and public policies on consumers’ decision.
    On the basis of current network effects research, the thesis makes some innovative explorations in terms of the following three aspects. First, it studies the market structure of network industries theoretically and empirically for the first time. On one hand, it proves the “neo-oligopoly” feature by using related theory of industrial organization and network economics; on the other hand, by collecting relevant data and using time-series tools, it does empirical analysis on the market structure of representative network industries. Second, it thoroughly analyzes typical competitive strategies based on network effects theory. Most of current research is limited to a specific competitive strategy and isolated with each other. This thesis aims to do consistent research by using modern analytical tools such as dynamic optimization and game theory and setting up a series of models. Third, it puts forward public policy suggestions with more practical implications. For instance, based on the market structure of network industries and the model conclusions of strategic bundling, it suggests that government should abandon pure structure principles and introduce more feasible implementation guidelines for antitrust policies.    
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