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网络经济中的垄断与竞争政策分析
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网络经济学
网络经济理论与政策分析网络经济理论与政策分析
     随着经济的发展,网络经济领域中的反垄断问题越来越受到关注。在传统经
    济中,在市场上形成垄断的企业通常会限制产量并且提高价格,从而导致消费者
    福利的减少和社会资源的浪费。这就需要运用竞争政策来保护竞争和促进经济效
    率。在网络经济中,垄断和竞争同时强化的现象普遍存在。
     网络外部性、路径依赖和锁定、正反馈以及边际收益递增使在市场竞争中获
    得领先优势的企业更容易在市场上形成垄断地位。这意味着,网络经济中垄断的
    出现是产业特点所导致的,并不一定是由于企业采取了限制竞争行为,当然也不
    排除个别企业有这种可能。
     网络经济中的垄断具有与传统经济中的垄断不同的形成原因。在网络经济中
    所形成的垄断通常只是暂时的。在市场上获得垄断地位的企业为了保持其竞争优
    势会倾向于提高产量、降低价格、提供更优质的服务并且不断进行技术创新,这
    些将有利于提高经济效率。因此,在网络经济中对垄断进行判定时,不能够只根
    据企业所占有的市场份额,还应当考虑企业是否通过采取限制竞争行为来获得垄
    断地位以及其行为对市场效率的影响,并且根据网络经济中垄断的特征和反垄断
    的需要来设定新的垄断衡量指标。
     本文的第1 章介绍了关于网络经济中的垄断与竞争政策的研究背景,回顾了
    相关的理论,总结了相关的文献,并且提出了研究框架。本文的第2 章分析了网
    络经济中垄断的形成原因与特征。本文的第3 章从分配效率、生产效率和动态效
    率这三个方面阐述了网络经济中的垄断对市场效率产生的影响,关于分配效率的
    分析通常和消费者福利联系在一起,关于生产效率的分析通常和规模经济联系在
    一起,关于动态效率的分析通常是从长期的、动态的角度来考察企业的垄断力量
    和竞争行为,实际上就是要判断垄断力量与技术创新之间所存在的关系。本文的
    第4 章结合微软垄断案来分析在网络经济中应当如何运用竞争政策来反垄断并
    且提出一些建议。本文的第5 章对全文进行了总结。
     本文的创新之处是:第一,从网络经济学的角度出发,并且结合制度经济学
    和产业经济学的理论,来分析网络经济中的垄断。第二,运用模型来阐述网络经
    济中的垄断对市场效率所产生的影响。第三,结合微软垄断案来分析在网络经济
    中应当如何运用竞争政策。 [英文摘要]:      With economic development, in the field of the network economy the anti-monopoly problems draw increasing attention. In traditional economy, the
    enterprises with monopoly power usually limit their products and raise price in the market, which will result in reduction in consumers'welfare and the waste of social resource. In order to protect competition and promote economic efficiency it needs to make use of competitive policy.In the network economy, the situation is prevailing in which monopoly and competition is enhanced at the same time.
     Because of network externalities, path dependence, lock-out, positive feedback, as well as increasing marginal returns, the enterprises which are dominant in the market competition are much easier to form monopoly. This means that in the network economy, the emergence of the monopoly is a result of industry characteristics, not necessarily because of the enterprises’ adoption of the behavior which restricts competition. Admittedly, we cannot take as granted that all the monopoly is formed in this way.
     The reasons of forming the monopoly in the network economy are different with traditional economy. The monopoly in the network economy is usually temporary. In order to maintain its own competitive advantage, an enterprise which obtains monopoly in the market would be more inclined to increase production, lower price, provide a high quality service and continuous technological innovation, which will help improve economic efficiency. Therefore, in the network economy, the verification of the monopoly not only is according to the market share, but also should consider whether the formation of monopoly is by taking the behavior of restricting competition, as well as the impact of enterprise’s behavior on market efficiency. Moreover, the setting of new measurement of monopoly should be according to the characteristics of monopoly in the network economy and the necessary of anti-monopoly.
     Chapter I of this article is to introduce the research background about the
    monopoly in the network economy and competitive policy, to review the related
    theories and literature, and to propose the research framework. Chapter II of this article analyzes the causes of forming the monopoly in the network economy and the characteristics of the monopoly in the network economy. Chapter III of this article analyzes the impact of the monopoly in the network economy on market efficiency from the perspective of distributive efficiency, productive efficiency and dynamic efficiency. The analysis of distributive efficiency is usually related with consumers'welfare; the analysis of productive efficiency is usually related with scale economy and as to the analysis of dynamic efficiency, we often study monopoly power and competitive behavior of enterprises from long-term and dynamic perspective which is
    actually to determine the relationship between monopoly power and technological
    innovation. Chapter IV of this article analyzes how to use the competitive policies in the network economy and to make some suggestions by discussing the Microsoft monopoly case. Chapter V of this article sums up the article.
     Innovations of this article are: first, analyzing the monopoly in the network economy from the view of network economics, together with institutional economics and industrial economics. Second, using models to analyze the impact of the monopoly in the network economy on market efficiency. Third, analyzing how to use the competitive policy in the network economy in combination with the Microsoft monopoly case analysis. [参考文献]:     [1] 龚维敬.垄断经济学[M].上海:上海人民出版社,2007.
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