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试论我国重大自然灾害保险制度的构建——以汶川地震为例
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    灾害作为一种风险,其发生会给经济和社会带来严重损失。我国是自然灾害多发国家,2008年,我国相继发生了雪灾、汶川地震等一系列的重大自然灾害,灾害救助是一种常态。目前,我国习惯运用行政手段进行灾害管理和救助,政府承担了较重的灾害补偿责任,尚缺乏市场化的应对机制,构建一种有效的灾害救助制度已成为现实需要。因此,基于现实的需要,本文借助相关理论理论,对部分典型国家和地区的重大自然灾害保险模式进行全面的比较分析,并以汶川地震为例剖析我国重大自然灾害保险制度缺失的影响和制约其发展的因素,以期为我国重大自然灾害保险制度的构建提供一些有益的启示。
    本文内容共分四个部分:第一部分为重大自然灾害灾害保险制度概述。主要对相关的基础理论作了简单的介绍,对涉及概念进行了界定,并分析了重大自然灾害保险制度的作用和意义。第二部分为中外重大自然灾害保险制度模式的比较及启示。全面比较分析了台湾、美国、新西兰、日本的重大自然灾害保险制度模式,结合我国实际,提出了对我国重大自然灾害保险制度构建的启示。第三部分为从汶川地震看我国重大自然灾害保险现状及缺失分析。从汶川地震中保险发挥作用的实践情况出发,分析我国重大自然保险制度缺失的影响和制约我国重大自然灾害保险制度发展的因素。第四部分为我国重大自然灾害保险制度的构建。主要就重大自然灾害保险制度的制度框架和与之相匹配的金融体系开发与创新提出了相关的建议。
    本文主要采用文献分析法、系统分析法、实证分析法等分析方法,对我国重大自然灾害保险制度的现状进行了分析和典型重大自然灾害保险制度模式作了比较,提出了我国重大自然灾害保险制度构建的制度框架和与之相匹配的金融体系的开发与创新等一些较新的见解,不足之处是实证分析不够深入。 [英文摘要]:     Disasters as a risk, its occurrence will lead to serious economic and social losses. China is a country which often occurs natural disasters. In 2008, China's snow disaster,“ Wenchuan” earthquake and a series of major natural disasters take place one after another. Natural disasters are a normal state in our country, so disaster relief should be a system. At present, our country usually use the administrative way to carry out disaster management and relief and the Government has assumed more responsibility for disaster compensation, along with lack of market-oriented coping mechanisms. Construction of an effective system of disaster relief has become a realistic need, but insurance as an effective tool for risk diversification and transfer is not applied by us in the snowstorm and “Wenchuan” earthquake. Although the insurance trade played a large role in the process of post-disaster relief ,the overall payment rate is still small, which reflect a series of questions ,such as the not wide of the coverage of the insurance trade, Loss Prevention in place, the fault of emergency response mechanisms, and the imperfections of the management of major natural disaster risk. Therefore, based on the realistic needs, this article through the use of new public management theory, theory of institutional change, risk management theory, behavioral finance theory, the comprehensive comparison of major natural disaster insurance model of part of a typical domestic and foreign countries and regions, and the example of“ Wenchuan” earthquake that analyze the impact of lack of insurance system and the factors constraining their development ,want to provide some useful inspiration for the construction insurance system of major natural disasters.
    Mainly, this article is divided into four parts:
    The first part is an overview for the major natural disaster insurance system
    ,which briefly introduce the relevant theories and define the concept involving the definition. Moreover, this part analyze the status and significance of insurance system of major natural disaster
    The second part is the comparison and inspiration of model for the major natural disasters and foreign insurance system .This part Comprehensive analyze and compare the model of insurance system for major natural disaster of Taiwan, the United States, New Zeal and Japan. Combined with the reality of our country, this part put forward the advice of construction of insurance system of the major natural disaster.
    The third part analyzes status quo and the reason of lack of major natural disaster insurance from the Wenchuan earthquake. Moreover, this part analyze he influence of loss of insurance system of major natural disaster and factor of restricting the development of insurance system of major natural disaster from
    The function of insurance system of Wenchuan earthquake.
    The fourth part is the construction of insurance system of major natural disaster, which put forward some suggestions for construction of institutional framework of the insurance system of major natural disasters and the innovation of financial system.
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