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传承与变异 ——论闽南戏剧文化圈
时间:2011-03-13 浏览次数:1770次 无忧论文网
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戏剧戏曲学
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    本文借用西方文化人类学的“文化圈”理论,应用于戏剧学研究,又有所修正,提出“戏剧文化圈”概念。“戏剧文化圈”是指聚居于特定地域,使用本地区共同的语言,具有相对共同的宗教信仰和民俗习惯的人群所共同拥有的戏剧文化在地域上的分布和历史过程。
    闽南戏剧文化圈是一个在时间和空间两个维度上展开的概念,在展开的过程中,有传承,也有变异。我们把同样使用闽南方言的福建南部、广东潮汕地区、台湾和东南亚等闽南人聚居地视为同一个戏剧文化圈。闽南戏剧文化圈包含了完整的戏剧艺术体系,不仅拥有历史悠久、土生土长的各种闽南方言戏曲和偶戏,吸纳包容了北方官话戏曲,而且创造了新型的、便于体现现代意识的方言话剧和方言歌剧。
    闽南戏剧文化始终保持了旺盛的生命力和创造性,其传播不止是空间上的位移或文化的借用,而且入乡随俗、因地制宜,在流播中发展,在传承中创造。
    影响闽南戏剧文化形成、发展和变异的主要因素有:方言、宗教信仰和民俗、人口迁徙、外来剧种的影响、官方政策、经济状况、科技以及艺术家主体的创新等等。方言决定了声腔,是闽南戏剧最基本的共同点,也是生存与发展的基础。闽南人共同的宗教信仰和民俗为戏剧活动提供了丰富的演出时机和场域,也决定其主要功能。闽南大量的人口迁徙,特别是过台湾,下南洋,造就了闽南戏剧文化圈的空间分布。对外来剧种的吸收和本土化,是闽南戏剧文化丰富发展的途径之一,这是由于闽南文化具有深厚的传统和强大生命力,故能积极吸纳涵化。每个文化圈都存在官方与民间的二元分野和冲突,官方文化政策因此往往成为权力规训的手段,制约和影响着民间戏剧的发展。经济发展是戏剧文化发展的必要物质基础。科技带来了舞台技术的革新和新的传播媒介,为戏剧在现代社会的生存与发展提供了新的可能性。在闽南深厚的文化传统熏陶下,一代代闽南艺术家自强不息、敢闯打拼,善于融会贯通、积极创新,则是闽南戏剧文化持续发展的内在动力。
    本文结合整体描述与个案分析,具体探讨了各种因素对闽南戏剧文化发生发展的影响,在具象化闽南戏剧文化圈的复杂图景的同时,试图探讨其传承与变异的深刻根源,进而寻找戏剧文化发展变异的一般规律。 [英文摘要]:     The Minnan drama culture circle is a kind of concept which evolves in both dimensions of time and space.  In the process of evolution, heritage and transformation co-exist.
    The theory of culture circle applied in this dissertation comes from Western cultural anthropology, which adds the concept of geography space into the traditional Chinese opera study, and do some revise. Language decides function of the culture, especially the Checks and supervision of vocal cavity .So I take the usage of dialect as the main vehicle to draw the line of “drama culture circle”. Those Minnannese  gathering regions, such as South Fukien,Western  Guangdong ,Taiwan and Southeast Asia etc., are usually regarded as in the same drama culture circle. Thus, the Minnan drama culture circle serves as a sufficient drama art system.  This particular culture circle is composed of all kinds of ancient, aboriginal, local traditional Chinese operas and puppets, absorbs and accepts northern traditional Chinese operas which use official language, and creates new forms of dialect stage plays (“spoken drama”) and dialect operas which are easier to prevail. 
    The Minnan drama culture always keeps vigrous vitality and creative power.  Its dissemination reflects in the change of space and culture borrowing, and the process of adopting the customs of the natives as well. The drama culture develops in its diffusion, and created during its inheriting.
    The main factors that influence the formation, development and variation of the Minnan drama culture are: dialect, religious faith and custom, the change of population, the influence of the plays borrowing from other culture circles, official policy, economic condition, science and technology, and artist's creativity. The dialect decides vocal cavity; therefore, it serves as the most basic similarity of the Minnan drama as well as the foundation of its existence and development. In addition to deciding its main function, the same religious belief and custom definitely provide abundant performance opportunities and spaces for the Minnan drama. A great number of Minnan population have immigrated all over the world, especially to Taiwan and Southern Asia, and that certainly enlarged the Minnan drama culture circle. The absorption and localization of drama borrowing from other culture circles become one of the ways to create the variety of the Minnan drama culture due to the solid tradition and strong vitality of the Minnan culture. It is apparent that the opposition and conflict between the authorities and folks co-exists in each culture circle; therefore, the official cultural policy usually serves as the means of power rules, which supervise and influence the development of the folk drama. The economic development is the necessary material foundation of the drama cultural development. Science and technology bring in technical innovation with the new dissemination medium, and this provides a new way for the existence and development of traditional drama in modern society. Under strong influence of the Minnan cultural tradition, countless generations of the Minnan artists, exert and strive without stop, dare to rush to work hard on integrating, and actively create theatre arts; thus, these are the inside motives of the Minnan drama culture.
    This dissertation combines the whole description and the individual case analysis, concretely investigating into the various factors of influences on the evolution and development of the Minnan drama culture, try to explore the major sources of its inheriting and variation by analyzing the complicated pictures of the Minnan culture circle, and searching for the general regulations of its cultural development and transformation.
         
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