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租金竞争和管制价格的确定
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租金竞争和管制价格的确定 · 基本信息 作者: 专业: 班级: 研究方向: 学校: 北京大学中国经济研究中心 指导老师: 写作日期: 字数: 20,038 编号: 180 类别: 文科>经济 级别: 硕士毕业论文 摘要 本文以北京市出租汽车行业为案例,研究管制价格的形成过程。管制价格决定行业租金的水平;同时管制价格是由管制部门制定和调整的。因此,相关的利益主体就有为最大化自身租金所得而影响定价的空间。然而,传统的理论在讨论价格管制下相关利益主体竞争租金行为时,将管制价格看成外生给定,从而无法解释管制价格的形成过程。在北京出租车的案例中,相关利益主体竞争租金,其竞争导致的成本将抵消租金所得的净值。为了减少这种租值的耗散,相关利益主体不断地影响管制价格;历次价格调整都是他们减少租值耗散的努力共同作用的结果。给定租金的存在以及人们竞争而使租值耗散的倾向,每一个相关的利益主体都会在约束条件下最小化租值的耗散。本文对传统理论进行拓展并提出一个关于管制价格形成的可检验假说:相关利益主体为最小化自己的租值耗散要影响管制价格,他们各自都要使得影响价格带来耗散的减少和为此而耗费的成本在边际上相等;各个利益主体影响价格的行为的相互作用共同决定了管制价格的形成过程。 Rent Competition and The Formation of Regulated Price Abstract Using the case of the taxi industry in Beijing City, this paper examines how regulated price is formed. Regulated price is set and adjusted by the authorities. Therefore, there is room for manipulation by interest parties. Traditionally, economists focus on the people’s behaviors of rent competition, taking the regulated price as given. In the case of Beijing’s taxi industry, various parties compete for the rent, but the costs of competition dissipate the rent. In order to reduce the rent dissipation, the parties involved kept trying to change the price system; all the pricing adjustments were the results of their efforts. Given the existence of rent and its tendency to dissipate as a result of rent competition, each and every party involved will seek to minimize the dissipation subject to constraints. This paper expands the established theories and proposes a testable hypothesis of the formation of regulated price: In order to minimize their own rent dissipation, the parties involved try to affect the formation of regulated price; each party will equate the marginal costs and benefits of such behaviors. The interactions of each party’s behaviors determine the process of forming the regulated price. 目录 1. 引言 1 2. 理论分析框架 1 2.1. 基本概念 1 2.1.1. 租金 2 2.1.2. 租值耗散 2 2.1.3. 最小化租值耗散 2 2.2. 传统的理论 3 2.2.1. 早期的理论 3 2.2.2. 张五常的理论 3 2.3. 命题的拓展 4 2.3.1. 传统理论的局限 4 2.3.2. 拓展的命题 4 3. 案例:北京市出租车行业 5 3.1. 历年租价调整概况 5 3.1.1. 1951-1983年间的出租车价格变动 5 3.1.2. 1984-1990年间的出租车价格变动 6 3.1.3. 1991至今的出租车价格变动 7 3.2. 承包费的调整概况 8 3.3. 法定的定价程序和实际的定价过程 8 3.3.1. 法定定价程序 9 3.3.2. 利益主体决定的实际定价过程 9 3.4. 减少租值耗散的行为影响价格形成 11 3.4.1. 1983年以前的价格调整 11 3.4.2. 1984年-1991年的价格调整 11 3.4.3. 1991年至现在的价格调整 12 4. 结论 22 参考文献 23 Rent Competition and The Formation of Regulated Price Contents 1.Introduction 1 2.The framework of theoritical analysis 1 2.1.Basic concepts 1 2.1.1.Rent 2 2.1.2.Rent dissipation 2 2.1.3.Minimization of rent dissipation 2 2.2.Tranditional theories 3 2.2.1.The classical theory 3 2.2.2. Steven Cheung’s theory 3 2.3.A expansion of tranditional theories 4 2.3.1.The limitation of tranditional theories 4 2.3.2.The new hypothesis 4 3.Case:The taxi industry in Beijing 5 3.1.Survey of the price adjustments 5 3.1.1.The price from 1951 to 1983 5 3.1.2.The price from 1984 to 1990 6 3.1.3.The price since 1991 7 3.2.Adjustments of subcontract fee 8 3.3.Legal pricing process V.s. actual pricing process 8 3.3.1.Legal pricing process 9 3.3.2.Actual pricing process determined by interest parties 9 3.4.Formation of price as a result of minimization of rent dissipation 11 3.4.1.Price adjustments before 1983 11 3.4.2.Price adjustments since from 1984 to 1991 11 3.4.3.Price adjustments since 1991 12 4.Conclusion 22 Reference 23
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