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失业者的社会排斥现象分析
时间:2011-02-21 浏览次数:1287次 无忧论文网
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劳动经济学
劳动经济学劳动经济学
    失业率是一个国家或地区经济社会发展的“晴雨表”, 在社会学的视野中,失业问题不仅是一个重要的经济问题,也是一个十分敏感的社会问题。失业对社会和个人的影响,除了经济性后果,还有多种社会性后果。社会排斥就是失业的   社会性后果的一种体现。失业和社会排斥现象的存在,不利于维护和实现社会公平和社会稳定,不利于加快缩小收入分配差距,让更多人分享经济发展成果。研究失业的社会排斥现象,有助于政府和社会各界了解失业弱势群体的生活困难,有助于更好的帮助失业弱势群体,为他们提供更好的社会支持服务。本文主要从消费排斥、社会关系排斥、劳动力市场排斥和文化排斥等四个方面分析失业弱势群体面临的社会排斥,并分析这些现象产生的原因,揭示社会排斥现象对失业者的影响。第一,失业家庭由于收入减少而造成消费能力下降,在消费品市场受到排斥。第二,失业者的社会交往范围缩小,人际网络蜕化,人生转型受到影响,家庭关系受到影响,这些都可以归结为失业的社会关系排斥。第三,失业者由于技能缺乏、信息缺乏、社会网络缺乏,在劳动力市场上也处于不利地位;除此以外,失业还会形成“信号效应”,不利于劳动者求职。第四,在失业群体中,还存在着不同与主流社会的文化,这些文化和由此形成的消极、好逸恶劳、安于贫困的价值观,都将对失业者产生负面的影响。失业和社会排斥还存在代际传递和世代循环现象,如果不及时加以遏制,失业家庭的下一代将很可能同样陷入失业和贫困的境地。面对严峻的失业问题,对于失业弱势群体援助不仅关系到他们的生存发展问题,而且对于经济的稳定发展及构建和谐社会都有着极其重要的意义。失业及其社会排斥现象具有极大的危害性,政府和社会有责任对失业弱势群体提供援助和支持,帮助他们走出目前的困境。 [英文摘要]:     Unemployment rate is the barometer of economic and social development in a country or a region. In the visual field of sociology, unemployment problem is an important economic issue and at the same time a sensitive social problem. The affects of unemployment on individuals and society involves not only serious economic results, but also a series of social results. Social exclusion is one of the social results of unemployment. Unemployment and social exclusion goes against the idea of social justice and does not in favor of reducing the income gap between different social classes. At the same time, the existence of social exclusion makes it difficult for the government to reach the aim of improving people's life in China and harms social stability. The research of social exclusion helps government and the society to know more about the life and needs of vulnerable jobless groups and helps to give an insight to the ways of offering better public service to the unemployed people. This paper makes a systematic exposition on the social exclusion caused by unemployment in the market of consumer goods, in social relations, in labor markets and in culture. Firstly, family income goes down and consumption ability of jobless groups decreases. Secondly, the experience of unemployment degenerates the social network of unemployed people and this will has a negative effect on the life transition of youth. As is showed in the research, the unemployment is one of the reasons of poor family relationship. Thirdly, with the shortage of professional skills, employment information and social network, it is difficult for a unemployed person to find a job. The “ signal effects” enhances the disadvantage of jobless groups. Finally, the unique culture in the unemployment people is different from that of other groups. The belief and life philosophy is affected by the culture and has a negative effect on the people. The intergenerational transmission of unemployment and social exclusion means that if it was not controlled, the probability of children to become unemployed will increase. On one hand, the assistance system is important to the survival and development of jobless groups, on the other hand, it is key to the stability of economic growth and the construction of harmonious society. Unemployment and social exclusion is of great harm. It’s the responsibility of government to offer public aids to the unemployed people.    
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