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环境污染与政府政策的理论研究
时间:2011-01-24 浏览次数:1247次 无忧论文网
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西方经济学
环境经济学环境经济学
        在经济快速增长的同时,环境污染问题作为增长的伴生物成为世界各国目前十分关注的社会问题。不可例外地,我国也同样面临着严重的环境问题,甚至有些地区生态系统破坏非常严重以至失衡。为此,中央政府与各级地区政府也日益重视环境保护问题,并将此纳入日常工作议程,大力提倡经济和环境的协调平衡发展。而政府应该如何运用环境政策调整环境污染产生的外部性,包括地区间的环境资源竞争所产生的外部性?本文将拓展相关模型,对此问题展开深入具体的理论分析。
         第一章吸收了Gong and Zou (2002)多级政府的思想,并参考了龚六堂和邹恒甫(2002)分析多级政府体制下税收理论的方法,建立了一个考虑环境因素,包含中央政府、地方政府以及消费者三者相互作用的一般竞争均衡模型以及社会计划者模型,同时分析各自的经济动态特征,讨论经济可持续发展的可能性等问题。我们认为,污染治理效率应该是经济获得可持续增长的关键因素。同时技术进步特别是污染治理的技术对长期经济增长的效应是积极的。
          第二章尝试在世代交叠模型中考虑资本生产带来的环境外部性。模型中政府对厂商征收环境税,消费者获得转移支付并提供污染治理活动。此章就各因素在稳态时对经济和环境系统的影响进行了比较静态分析,强调了严厉的环境政策对经济和环境本身的积极作用。通过与社会最优配置条件的比较,我们认为政府可以设置最优的环境税、消费税和一次性转移来达到社会最优水平。
          第三章通过扩展已有相关研究的理论模型探讨了存在人口流动的情况下跨区污染的政府政策选择。此章分析了存在中央和地区两级政府的混合经济中最优资源配置的可实现性。研究表明:无论中央政府拥有最终选择权还是地区政府拥有最终选择权,只要中央政府制定适当的收入转移政策,经济均可达到社会性最优状态。特别是,如果地区间的包含环境因素的生产技术存在差异,为实现经济的最优状态必须进行地区间的收入转移。 [英文摘要]:           As the byproduct of the speeded economic growth, pollution problem has been concerned by lots of nations all over the world. China is also facing the same serve environmental pollution. In some regions the circumstance seems to be out of control, which impedes economic growth and reduces individuals’ welfare level. The central government and lower levels of governments care for environmental protection to ensure harmonized development in economic and environmental systems. How do governments employ environmental policy to internalize the externality from pollution including the one from environmental competition between regions? The paper will extend the relative papers to analyze it.
          In Chapter one, based on some thoughts about different levels of governments in Gong and Zou (2002)and so on, I consider a generally competitive equilibrium and socially optimal outcome in an economy with two levels of governments under two different technologies of pollution abatement. It is shown that the efficiency of pollution control is the key cause of sustainable development. The competitive equilibrium reaches the socially optimal optimum with a sustainable growth, which is decided by the relative efficiency of pollution abatement and production technology. Hence, our nation as a developing country should improve the technology including the one of abating pollution, via which sustainable development is realized.
           In Chapter two, I consider the environmental externality from production activities in an overlapping model, analyzing capital dynamics with the competitive equilibrium and the comparative statics of each economic factor’s effect on the economy and environment at the steady state. It shows that more rigid environmental policy can bring more capital stock and better environmental quality in the steady state. The government should take a pollution tax to internalize the environmental externality, and otherwise need to design a tax scheme with consumption tax and a lump-sum transfer and so on to internalize the intergenerational externality for the social optimum.
              Chapter three extends the models of Silva and Caplan (1997) and Heol and Shapiro (2003) to study the environmental policies of two levels of government for transboundary pollution with population mobility. I analyze the social efficiency of resource allocation in the mixed economy with the central and two local governments. The study shows that, whether the central government is the Stackelberg leader or the local governments are the Stackelberg leaders, the economy is able to achieve the social optimum by setting appropriate policy of income transfer. Especially, if the regional production technologies are different, the interregional income transfer is necessary for the social optimum.
         
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