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美国墨西哥移民教育隔离现象研究
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世界史
美国族裔史美国族裔史
     美国是一个移民大国,有关于移民问题各个方面的研究一直深受国内外学者关注。由于地理、历史、经济等方面的原因,从19世纪末直到今天,墨西哥人移民美国的历史持续了百余年,并日益成为美国最大的移民群体。然而,在美国注重科技,注重教育,大力发展知识经济的环境下,身居其中的墨西哥移民教育状况却不尽人意,“隔离”、“落后”等特征足以表现出与时代发展的不协调。所以,本文将从历史的角度去解读这一现象,重点考察墨西哥裔教育隔离的状况、隔离产生的原因、墨裔自身与美国政府力图消除隔离所做的种种努力等,并通过分析得出结论:无论是非法移民还是合法移民,墨西哥裔都为美国的经济建设做出了不可估量的贡献,所以,不管是出于人道主义精神,还是从美国的经济发展现实要求的角度考虑,消除教育隔离,改善墨西哥族裔的教育状况是极其必要的。这不仅是美国政府的责任,也是整个美国社会共同的使命。
     本文主要分为四章:
     第一章是序言部分,主要包括选题缘由和相关的学术史回顾,并对本文的研究对象进行了界定。
     第二章是正文部分的开始,按照教育隔离在不同时代体现出来的特征,笔者分两个阶段对墨裔教育隔离的状况进行了阐述。
     第三章主要从四个方面分析了墨裔教育隔离产生的原因:墨西哥裔移民自身的特点、墨西哥裔家庭与社区、学校财政来源与不同经济阶层之间的隔离、白人对墨西哥裔移民的歧视等。
     第四章重点考察了墨裔美国人和美国政府在消除教育隔离方面所采取的行动及做出的努力。其中,自20世纪初,墨裔中产阶级出现之后,由其自身发起的反隔离运动就开始了。进入20世纪60年代之后,民权运动兴起,美国政府也开始了追求教育平等化的立法历程,对墨裔教育有一定的影响。
     结语部分总结了消除墨西哥裔教育隔离,实现教育公平的必要性和重大意义,点明本文的主旨。
     关键词:美国;墨西哥移民;教育隔离;教育公平
     [英文摘要]:      The United States is an immigrant country, and the hot issue of immigration becomes a worldwide phenomenon that deserves attention increasingly. Because of geographic, historical and economic reasons, Mexican immigrate to the United States lasted more than 100 years from the late nineteenth century onwards, and now, they have become the largest immigration group in America. However, as the United States paying attention to education, science and technology, and promoting knowledge economics, the education of Mexican immigrants is so awful (segregation, fallbehind) that out of harmony with the times. This thesis aims to, from the historic review, inspect the situation and cause of the Mexican immigrants' educational segregation, and the desegregation effort of Mexican Americans and the American government. Finally, the author suggest that Mexican immigrants, both legal and undocumented, have made great contributions to the United States' economic construction, so, it's essential to eliminate segregated education, improve Mexican immigrants' education, no matter from the humanitarian spirit, or the angle of realistic requirement of economic development. It is not only the government's responsibility, but also the common mission of the whole American society.
     The thesis consists of four chapters:
     Chapter one is the introduction part, which tells the reasons to choose the topic, reviews the research situation on the topic, and defines the research object.
     Chapter two is the beginning of the main body. According to the diverse characters in different times, the author illustrate the Mexican immigrants' segregated education in two phases.
     Chapter three analyzes the reasons for Mexican immigrants' educational segregation from four aspects: the Mexican immigrants' own characteristics, Mexican immigrants' families and communities, schools' main source of funding and segregation between different economic classes , the whites' discrimination against Mexican immigrants, etc.
     Chapter four is mainly about the desegregation actions of Mexican American and the American government. Since the early 20th century that the Mexican middle class emerged, they began to launch anti-apartheid movement. In the 1960s, the Civil Rights Movement sprang up, and the American government began the legislative process to pursue educational equality, which deeply influence the Mexican immigrants' education.
     The conclusion part summarizes the necessity and significance of eliminating educational segregation and realizing the educational equity, pointing out the subject of this thesis.
    
     Key words: the United States; Mexican Immigrant; Educational Segregation; Educational Equity
     [参考文献]:     主要中文著作:
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    主要英文著作:
    [1] Peter Skerry, Mexican Americans: The Ambivalent Minority, Harvard: Harvard University Press, 1995.
    [2] Peter Duignan & Lewis H. Gann, The Debate in the United States over Immigration, California: Hoover Institution Press, 1998.
    [3] Zaragosa Vargas, Major Problem in Mexican American History, New York: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1999.
    [4] Gilbert G. Gonzalez, Raul A. Fernandez, A Century of Chicano History: Empire, Nations, and Migration, New York: Routledge, 2003.
    [5] Bradley R. Schiller, The Economics of Poverty and Discrimination-9th ed, Pearson Education, Inc, 2003.
    [6] Jeanett Castellanos & Lee Jones , The Majority in the Minority: Expanding the Representation of Latina/o and Students in Higher Education, Virginia: Stylus Publishing, LLC, 2003.
    [7] David J. Leon, Latinos in Higher Education, Elsevier Science Ltd, 2003.
    [8] Joel Spring, Deculturalization and the Struggle for Equality: A Brief History of the Education of Dominated Cultures in the United States-4th ed, New York: The McGraw-Hill Companies, inc, 2004.
    [9] Meier, Matt S, The Chicanos : a history of Mexican Americans, New York : Hill and Wang, c1972.
    [10] Harry P. Pachon and Joan W. Moore : “Mexican Americans”,Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science ,Vol. 454, America as a Multicultural Society (Mar, 1981),pp. 111-124.
    [11] Alejandro Portes, Dag MacLeod, “Educational Progress of Children of Immigrants: The Roles of Class, Ethnicity, and School Context”, Sociology of Education, Vol. 69, No. 4 (Oct., 1996), pp. 255-275.
    [12] David Montejano,Anglos and Mexicans in the Making of Texas, 1836-1986, Austin: University of Texas Press,1987.
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    [14] Charles Wollenberg, “Mendez v. Westminster: Race, Nationality and Segregation in California Schools”, California Historical Quarterly, Vol. 53, No. 4 (Winter, 1974), pp. 317-332. [15] Rubén Donato,The other struggle for equal schools: Mexican Americans during the Civil Rights era, SUNY Press,1997. http://www.google.com/books?hl=zh-CN&lr=&id=TkmeBJuurpMC&oi=fnd&pg=PP13&dq=Mexican+American+struggle+against+shool+segregation&ots=a5-RPTUKFF&sig=mB3UnLHIV6CKoXXxytVwaou6xtE#v=onepage&q=&f=false.
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    [29] M. Cohen & Florence B. Brawer, The American community college, John Wiley and Sons, 2003.
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    [36]Rubén Donato, The other struggle for equal schools: Mexican Americans during the Civil Rights Era, State University of New York, 1997.
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    [38] Jon Reyhner and Jeanne Eder, A History of Indian Education, Billings: Eastern Montana College, 1989.
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    [40] Virgil A. Clift, et al. Negro Education in America:Its Adequacy, Problems and Needs, New York: Harper and Brothers, 1962.
    [41] Carlos Muñoz,Youth, identity, power: the Chicano movement, Verso, 1989.
    http://www.google.com/books?hl=zh-CN&lr=&id=7YPRSKIrUJsC&oi=fnd&pg=PR11&dq=Mexican+American+struggle+against+shool+segregation&ots=3KW-QhFgfB&sig=7Z8_7gN2dVowpJ6l062PakkBrfM#v=onepage&q=&f=false .
    [42] Suzanne Mettler, Soldiers to citizens: the G.I. bill and the making of the greatest generation, Oxford University Press US, 2005.
    [43] Guadalupe San Miguel, Jr, Let All of Them Take Heed:Mexican Americans and the Campaign for Educational Equality in Texas, 1910-1981, Austin: University of Texas Press, 1987.
    [44] Werner O.Schink, et al., The Burden of Support:Young Latinos in an Aging Society, Stanford University Press, 1990.
    [45] Luis Ricardo Fraga, et al., "Hispanic Americans and Educational Policy; Limits to Equal Access", The Journal of Politics, Vol. 48, No. 4 (Nov., 1986), pp.850-876.
    
    相关网站:
    [1]拉丁美裔美国公民联合会:http://www.lulac.org/
    [2]全国拉美委员会:http://www.nclr.org/
    [3]美国统计局:http://www.census.gov/
    [4]谷歌学术搜索网:http://scholar.google.cn/
        
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