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工程硕士学位论文 薄隔水层底板突水机理及预测预报研究
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分类号:TD745                                       密    级: 公   开                 
UDC:                                            单位代码: 10424                   


工 程 硕 士 学 位 论 文  薄隔水层底板突水机理及预测预报研究


施 龙 青

   申请学位级别:工程硕士    领域名称:矿业工程
   指导教师姓名:徐 榜 荣     职   称:教    授
副指导教师姓名:张    立     职   称:教    授
              

山 东 科 技 大 学
一九九九年五月

论文题目:

薄隔水层底板突水机理及预测预报研究

 作者姓名: 施龙青        入学时间: 1996年9月              
 领域名称: 矿业工程      研究方向: 矿山压力及其控制
 指导教师: 徐榜荣        职    称: 教      授   
 副指导教师:卜昌森       职    称: 高级工程师

论文提交日期:1999年5月
论文答辩日期:1999年6月20日
授予学位日期:               

STUDY OF THE WATER-INRUSH MECHANISM
AND PREDICTION OF THE WATER-RESISTING FLOOR

A Dissertation submitted in fulfillment of the requirements of the degree of

 

MASTER OF ENGINEERING


from


Shandong University of Science and Technology


by


Shi Longqing


Supervisor: Professor Song Zhenqi


College of Natural Resources and Environmental Engineering
May 1999


声    明

   本人呈交给山东科技大学的这篇工程硕士学位论文,除了所列参考文献和世所公认的文献外,全部是本人在导师指导下的研究成果。该论文资料尚没有呈交于其它任何学术机关作鉴定。


                                          工程硕士生签名:

                                        日      期:

AFFIRMATION

I declare that this dissertation, submitted in fulfillment of the requirements for the award of Master of Engineering in Shandong University of Science and Technology, is wholly my own work unless referenced of acknowledge. The document has not been submitted for qualification at any other academic institute.

                                        Signature:
                                         
                                        Date:


分类号:TD745                                       密    级: 公   开                 
UDC:                                            单位代码: 10424                   

 

工程硕士学位论文详细摘要
薄隔水层底板突水机理及预测预报研究


施 龙 青

 

   申请学位级别:工程硕士    领域名称:矿业工程
   指导教师姓名:徐 榜 荣     职   称:教    授
副指导教师姓名:张    立     职   称:教    授
                

 


山 东 科 技 大 学
一九九九年五月

论文题目:

薄隔水层底板突水机理及预测预报研究

 

 

 

 作者姓名: 施龙青        入学时间: 1996年9月              
 领域名称: 矿业工程      研究方向: 矿山压力及其控制
 指导教师: 徐榜荣        职    称: 教      授   
 副指导教师:卜昌森       职    称: 高级工程师

 


论文提交日期:1999年5月
论文答辩日期:1999年6月20日
授予学位日期:               

 

STUDY OF THE WATER-INRUSH MECHANISM
AND PREDICTION OF THE WATER-RESISTING FLOOR

A Dissertation submitted in fulfillment of the requirements of the degree of

 

MASTER OF ENGINEERING


from


Shandong University of Science and Technology


by


Shi Longqing


Supervisor: Professor Song Zhenqi


College of Natural Resources and Environmental Engineering
May 1999


目    录
1  绪  论………………………………………………………………………1
   1.1 课题的提出……………………………………………………………………………1
 1.2 底板突水机理研究历史及现状………………………………………………………4
 1.3 课题研究的目的………………………………………………………………………9
 1.4 研究内容及方法………………………………………………………………………9
2  突水类型的划分及突水资料的统计规律………………………………11 
2.1突水类型的划分………………………………………………………………………11
2.2煤矿底板突水资料的统计规律………………………………………………………14
3 断层突水机理研究…………………………………………………………29
3.1 掘进沟通断层型突水………………………………………………………………29
3.2 回采影响断层型突水………………………………………………………………36
3.3 水在断层突水中的作用……………………………………………………………47
3.4 采场断层突水条件分析……………………………………………………………54
3.5 采场断层突水最大突水量分析……………………………………………………63
3.6 采场断层活化相似材料试验及有限元分析………………………………………67
4 损伤底板突水机理…………………………………………………………73
4.1 采场底板“四带”理论………………………………………………………………73
4.2 底板导高形成的应力溶蚀机理……………………………………………………79
4.3 承压水对采场底板损伤破坏过程…………………………………………………81
4.4 底板隔水能力影响因素分析………………………………………………………84
4.5 底板破坏型突水相似材料试验及有限元分析……………………………………88
5 滑动构造与底板突水………………………………………………………94
5.1 水压作用下的重力滑动构造力学分析……………………………………………94
5.2 重力滑动运动的表现形式…………………………………………………………100
5.3 滑动构造发育强度指数……………………………………………………………105
5.4 肥城煤田滑动构造在矿井水害中的作用…………………………………………106
6 采场底板突水预测预报…………………………………………………116
6.1 用突水概率指数法预测采场底板突水…………………………………………116
6.2 采场底板突水预测预报应用软件开发……………………………………………127
6.3 底板突水典型案例分析及突水预测预报软件的应用……………………………138
6.4 肥城煤田深部开采突水评价………………………………………………………150
7 主要成果及结论…………………………………………………………158
7.1 主要成果…………………………………………………………………………158
7.2 主要结论……………………………………………………………………………160
致  谢………………………………………………………………………162
攻读硕士期间主要成果……………………………………………………163
主要参考文献………………………………………………………………164

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


Contents
1 Introduction………………………………………………………………………………1
1.1  Raising of Project…………………………………………………………………………………1
   1.2  History and Present Situation of the Study about Water Inrush Mechanism………………………4
   1.3  Studying Goal of the Project………………………………………………………………………9
   1.4  Research contents and methods ……………………………………………………………………9
2 Classification of Water Inrush Type and Statistical Law of Water Inrush Data……11
2.1  Classification of Water Inrush Type………………………………………………………………11
   2.2  Statistical Law of the Water Inrush Data of Coal Mine Floor……………………………………14
3 Mechanical Study of Water Inrush through a Fault…………………………………29
3.1  Water Inrush of drive Colluding with a Fault Type………………………………………………29
   3.2  Water Inrush of Actual Mining Affecting a Fault Type……………………………………………36
   3.3  Water Function in Water Inrush through a Fault …………………………………………………47
   3.4  Conditional Analysis of Water Inrush through a Fault in Working Area…………………………54
   3.5  Analysis of maximal Water Inrush Quantity through a Fault in Working Area……………………63
   3.6  Similar Material Test and Finite Element Analysis of Fault Reactivation ………………………67
4 Mechanical Study of Water Inrush through Destroyed Floor………………………73
4.1  Four-zone Theory of Mining Floor………………………………………………………………73
   4.2  Stress-corrosion Mechanism Forming the Inductive Height of Pressure Water in Floor…………79
   4.3  Analysis of Pressure Water Damaging and Breaking Floor………………………………………81
   4.4  Analysis of the Factors Affecting Water-resisting Capability of Floor……………………………84
   4.5  Similar Material Test and Finite Element Analysis of Water Inrush through Destroyed Floor …88
5 Gliding Structure and Water Inrush from Floor………………………………………94
   5.1  Mechanical Analysis of Gravitation Gliding Structure under the of Pressure Water……………94
   5.2  Movement Behavior of Gravitation Gliding Structure…………………………………………100
   5.3  Intensity Index of Gravitation Gliding Structure ………………………………………………105
    5.4  Influence of Gliding Structure on Water Disaster of Coal Mine in Feicheng Coal Field………106
6 Prediction of Water Inrush from Mining Floor………………………………………116
6.1  Predicting Water Inrush from Mining Floor with Water Inrush Index…………………………116
   6.2  Applicable Software Predicting Water Inrush from Mining Floor………………………………127
6.3 Analysis of Typical Water Inrush Cases and Application of the Software Predicting Water Inrush from Mining Floor………………………………………………………………………………138
6.4 Water Inrush Assessment in the Deep Mining of Feicheng Coal Field…………………………150
7 Main Research Result and Conclusion ……………………………………………158
     7.1  Main Research Result…………………………………………………………………………158
     7.2  Main Conclusion………………………………………………………………………………160

Thanks………………………………………………………………………………………162
Main Work Achievement of the Author during Working on Master Paper……………163
Main Reference Documents………………………………………………………………164

详细摘要

本课题是针对中国煤矿,特别是华北型煤田,已进入深部开采,受岩溶水威胁严重的现状而提出的,是国家自然科学基金资助的项目——“薄隔水层采场底板突水机理与预测预报方法研究”的主要研究内容。虽然煤矿底板突水问题最早是由国外学者提出,但是在这方面取得重大成就的国家是中国。目前,我国矿井防治水研究工作处于世界领先地位。本课题研究的目的是:通过对肥城煤田矿山压力作用下底板突水机理及滑动构造与突水关系的研究,评价肥城煤田深部开采发生突水的可能性;提出底板突水预测预报的新方法;开发底板突水预测预报应用软件;丰富和发展中国煤矿特殊开采理论,为承压水上安全采煤研究提供一定的理论基础。
根据矿山压力在采场及巷道的分布特点,论文将煤矿突水类型划分为三种,即:掘进沟通断层型突水;回采影响断层型突水;回采底板破坏型突水。论文收集了全国近千份煤矿底板突水典型案例及肥城煤田所有突水资料,总结中国煤矿突水规律及肥城煤田突水规律,开发出了“肥城煤田突水资料查询系统软件”。
结合矿山压力理论及几何损伤理论,分析了掘进沟通型断层突水预兆产生的机理,揭示掘进迎头导水断层可以预测的道理,给出了该类型突水量变化预测的公式,即:

(适用于富水断层)

   (适用于导水断层)
建立了回采影响断层型突水的采场断层活化的力学模型,分析了采场推进方向上断层活化的力学机理,得出了断层活化的条件,分析了采场推进过程中断层活化的规律和在各阶段突水的特点。得出了以下一些重要公式:

Detailed Abstract

  The project is aimed at that China coal mines, especial the north China-type coal fields, have been mining the deep coal layers and is threatened by karst water seriously. The project is the main study content of “Study of the Water-inrush Mechanism and Prediction Method of Thin Water-resisting Floor”, which is a project supplied by the national natural science funds. Although foreign scholars put the problem of the water-inrush from coal mining floor forward first, China makes the important achievement in the research field. At present, China is in the lead of the world in the research work of the prevention and control of mining water. The study aim of the project is that based on the study of the mechanism of water-inrush from mining floor and the relation between sliding structure and water-inrush, the water-inrush possibility during mining deep coal layers is evaluated. The new method to predict water-inrush is put forward and the applying software to predict water-inrush is developed. The special mining theory is enriched and developed, which provides a certain theoretical base for the safe mining coal above pressure water.
  According to the distributive characteristics of underground pressure in mining field and roadway, the dissertation divides water inrush into three types, that is water-inrush of drive colluding with a fault type, water-inrush of actual mining affecting a fault type, and water-inrush of mining floor broken type. The dissertation collects about one thousand of typical water-inrush cases in China coal mines and all water-inrush data in Feicheng coal field, summarizes water-inrush laws in China coal mines and in Feicheng coal field, and develops “The Inquiring System of Water-inrush Data in Feicheng Coal Field”.
  Combined the theory of underground pressure with geometric damage theory, the occurring ominous mechanism of the water-inrush through fault due to driving is analyzed, the reason to predict water-inrush through a fault in driving face is revealed, the formula to predict water-inrush quantity is given, that is:

 (Fitting to water-rich fault)

 (Fitting to water-flowing fault)

  The mechanical model of a fault revivification in mining is built. The mechanism of a fault revivification in mining progressive direction is analyzed. The condition of a fault revivification is induced. The law of a fault revivification in mining progressive direction and the water-inrush characteristic in each stage is analyzed. The following important formulas are obtained:

摘  要

基于大量的煤矿井突水案例,总结了中国煤矿井突水的一般规律及肥城煤田矿井突水的特点。根据“以岩层运动为中心”的矿山压力控制理论,研究了采场断层在矿山压力作用下活化的力学机制,以及断层活化过程中承压水和岩石相互作用的机理。给出了采场断层突水的条件。分析了矿山压力对突水量的影响作用。结合几何损伤理论及断裂力学理论,提出了采场底板“四带”划分理论,并应用该理论,研究了无断裂构造影响下采场底板突水的条件。根据重力滑动构造理论,研究了肥城煤田滑动构造形成的力学机制,以及其在肥城煤田矿井突水中所起的作用。评价了肥城煤田深部开采底板突水的可能性。研制了矿井底板突水预测预报应用软件。

关键词:突水机理,矿山压力,断层活化,“四带”理论,滑动构造,突水预测


Abstract
Based on large quantities of the cases of coal mine water-inrush, the general law of the water-inrush in Chinese coal mines and the characteristics of coal mine water-inrush in Feicheng coal field are summarized. According to the underground pressure theory, which takes stratum movement as key matter, the reactivating mechanical mechanism of a fault in mining floor under the action of underground pressure, and the mechanism of the interaction between pressure water and rock during the fault reactivation are studied. The condition of the water-inrush from a fault in mining floor is given. The influence of underground pressure on water-inrush quantity is analyzed. On the bases of geometrical theory of damage and fracture mechanics, the four-zone theory to divide mining floor is put forward, and with it, the condition of the water-inrush from mining floor without a fault is analyzed. In the light of the theory of gravity-gliding tectonics, the forming mechanical mechanism of the gliding structure in Feicheng coal field and its function in water-inrush are studied. The water-inrush possibility during mining depth coal layer is assessed. Applicable software to predicate water-inrush from mining floor is made.

Keywords: mechanism of water-inrush, underground pressure, fault reactivation, four-zone theory, gliding structure, water-inrush prediction

1  绪 论

1.1  课题的提出

1.1.1  中国煤矿水害现状
根据矿井突水水源划分,中国煤矿水害事故分为地表水体水害事故,占中国煤矿突水事故典型案例[1]的4.9%;冲积层水水害事故,占1.4 %;砂岩类含水层水害事故,占1.4%;灰岩类岩溶水水害事故,占92.3%。可见,防治灰岩岩溶类突水是矿井水害工作的重点。
中国具有开采价值的煤层主要集中在晚石灰世—早二叠世、晚二叠世、早侏罗世—中侏罗世、晚侏罗—早白垩4个聚煤期[44-45]。据不完全统计[22],含煤地层属晚古生代石炭二叠纪的占38%,主要集中在中国北方,通称华北型煤田;属二叠、三叠纪的占30%,主要集中在中国南方,通称华南型煤田;属中生代侏罗纪和白垩纪的占28%,主要集中在中国北方和东蒙地区,通称华北、东蒙煤田;属新生代第三纪的占4%。由于华北型的石炭系及华南型的二叠系多数形成于滨海、潮坪、泻湖等海相环境,含煤岩系中夹有厚度不一的多层碳酸盐岩,主要是石灰岩类和白云岩类。当它们的厚度大于4m时,就很容易发育岩溶。特别当它们通过地质构造与煤层底板厚层、巨厚层碳酸盐岩的岩溶,如华南型煤田的早二叠的茅口灰岩(100~200m左右)岩溶、华北型煤田的基底奥陶系灰岩(200~800m左右)岩溶,发生水力联系时,岩溶不仅更加发育,而且岩溶水的动储量会变得十分巨大,从而使煤矿生产的安全性受到重大的水害威胁。
中国煤田经过近一个世纪的开采,多数煤层的开采已进入深层位,特别是华北型煤田,大部分矿井已经开采石炭世煤层[3]。在中国地质历史演化过程中,华北的石炭一二叠世煤系地层绝大多数是直接沉积在奥陶系灰岩之上的,即缺失了早古生代的志留纪和晚古生代的泥盆纪地层。奥陶纪碳酸盐岩因在地表裸露约9亿年,不仅遭受不同程度的风化剥蚀,而且发育了程度不一的岩溶。这种初期的岩溶为以后的地下岩溶的发育奠定了基础。由于石炭世煤层距奥陶系近,在构造作用下,底板灰岩的岩溶不仅发育,而且往往和奥陶系灰岩构成统一的水力系统,因此煤矿受岩溶水威胁尤为突出。据不完全统计,自1956年到1994年,中国北方煤矿开采山西组与太原组煤层时突水1300余次。

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