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试论人类工具与独立自主的生命-科幻作品中的智能机器人
时间:2011-01-28 浏览次数:993次 无忧论文网
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      科幻作品正以独特的方式促进科学技术的发展;反过来,日新月异的科学技术又不断地为科幻作家提供新的创作灵感。人工智能是高科技项目之一,其根本作用是作为工具辅助人类,降低人类的工作和生活负担。由于某些科幻作品对恶意智能机器人加以夸张描写等原因,在在受众的心目中普遍产生了对于人工智能未来的恐惧心理和错误认识。如何正确认识人工智能的未来?这是现实生活与文艺作品向我们提出了一个亟待解决的问题。
      本文阐述了对于智能机器人及其科幻作品如何继续发展的一些思考,并从社会-哲学等层面分析人类工具(电脑和机器人)与独立自主的生命(社会的人)之间的关系问题。本文解析了西方典型的科幻影片《我,机器人》,指出了艾萨克•阿西莫夫设定的机器人三定律的局限,批评了刘西瑞对马克思主义哲学的怀疑论,从人本主义角度对智能机器人和智能生命体加以比较,评析了美国雷•库兹韦尔的未来学著作《灵魂机器的时代——当计算机超过人类智能时》。
      本文通过对机器人题材科幻作品的由来、热点及其价值的分析,得出如下结论:人本主义的观点应该肯定。“脑结构的发展程度远非电脑所能够比拟。人脑潜能的开发任重道远。”在未来人-机抗衡中,人脑的潜能必然在竞争中得到进一步的开发,并用于警惕机器人同人类“翻脸”。 笔者得出人类工具很难成为独立自主的生命的初步结论,是考虑到在这个问题上,简单的肯定与否定的意义其实并不大。人类工具究竟能否成为独立自主的生命,主要还是一个科研实践的问题,只有人类未来的科技发展能够给出明确的答案。“电脑将比人类有高一万倍的智能”等说法均属一家之言罢了。 [英文摘要]:       Fictional works are boosting the development of science and technology in a unique way; on the other hand, changing science and technology continually provide new creation inspiration for the author of science fiction. Artificial intelligence is one of the high-tech programs, and its essential role is to assist men as a tool so that men’s working and living burden can be lessened. Because some fictional works give exaggerated description of vicious intelligent robot, fear and wrong understanding of the future of artificial intelligence are widely produced in people’s minds. How can we understand the future of artificial intelligence correctly? It is a matter put forward by real life and literary works that is to be settled urgently.
      The paper sets forth some thinking on how to continue to develop intelligent robot and its fictional works and analyzes the relationship between human tool (computer and robot) and independent life (social men) from the angle of society, philosophy, etc. It analyzes western typical fictional film I, Robot and Three Laws of Robotics proposed by Isaac Asimov, criticizes Liu Xirui’s skepticism to the Marxism Philosophy, compares intelligent robot with intelligent life from the angle of humanism, and evaluates Ray Kurzweil’s futurology works The Age of Spiritual Machines-When Computers Exceed Human Intelligence.
      Through the analysis of the source, focus and value of fictional works regarding robot, the paper draws the following conclusion: the viewpoint of humanism should be affirmed. “The development of computer can not be compared with that of brain structure. The exploitation of the potential of brain has a long way to go.” In the future confrontation between men and machines, the potential of brain will certainly be exploited in the competition and will be used to prevent robot from “turning against” men. Because there is a little significance of simple affirmation and negation of this matter, the author reached the primary conclusion that human tool has difficulty in becoming independent life. Whether human tool can become independent life or not is still a matter of research practice whose answer can only be provided by men’s future scientific and technical development. The statement of “the intelligence of computer is ten thousand times higher than that of men” is just one side of the story.    
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