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巴厘戏剧与西方现代派戏剧
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     巴厘戏剧通过阿尔托的“残酷戏剧”理论,影响到西方现代派戏剧。
    本文尝试以此为个案,采用影响研究与平行研究互证,评述与分析相互观
    照的方法,分析西方现代派戏剧如何从东方戏剧中汲取养料,同时复活西
    方古典戏剧精神,创建西方现代戏剧的过程与意义。全文共分三大部分。
     第一部分主要论述阿尔托与巴厘戏剧的关系。东方戏剧对西方世界的
    重要影响之一是间接地通过一个性情暴烈的先知式的人物安托南·阿尔托
    实现的。阿尔托1931年在法国马赛的海外殖民地博览会上观看的印度尼西
    亚巴厘剧团的演出,被许多人认为是阿尔托“残酷戏剧”的开端。我们可
    以从他的戏剧理论著作《戏剧及其重影》中感受到阿尔托看到与理解的巴
    厘戏剧。同一时期,即二十世纪二三十年代,巴厘岛也开始引起西方,特
    别是西方一些人类学家的关注。他们迢迢万里,亲历巴厘。戏剧,作为巴
    厘岛最显著的艺术样式,进入了他们的视野并成为注目的中心。他们的描
    述以及二十世纪东西方文化的不断交流,为我们认识现实中的巴厘戏剧提
    供了可能。第一部分即从对阿尔托的巴厘之梦和现实中的巴厘戏剧的具体
    论述开始入手,通过对两者的比较,揭示出巴厘拥有所有西方现代国家所
    不具备的艺术与生活密不可分、戏剧成为生活中心的“戏剧理念”。以“残
    酷戏剧”替代“僵死戏剧”,阿尔托对所有西方现代戏剧基本要素的颠覆,
    正是阿尔托从巴厘戏剧中获得的最重要的启示。
     第H部分主要论述巴厘戏剧对西方现代派戏剧的影响。“整个20世纪
    的现代戏剧,就可以分为两个阶段,阿尔托之前与阿尔托之后。”这是苏
    珊·桑塔格的著名论断。虽然严格地说来,阿尔托本人的戏剧实践活动是
    微不足道的。然而,在理论上他却是现代戏剧风格的当然设计师。从某种
    程度上说,它可以用来涵盖在50年代末开始崛起的西方实验戏剧演出的总
    体风格特征和美学倾向。全文的第二部分紧扣第一部分总结出的几点启示,
    用阿尔托的理论与耶什·格罗托夫斯基、彼得·布鲁克、阿莉安娜·姆努
    什金、理查德·谢克纳、尤金尼奥·巴尔巴等的戏剧实践的例子,分别从剧本、语言、表演、剧场观念、观演关系、戏剧与生活的关系等六个戏剧
    理论基本范畴展开具体论述,以此证明,阿尔托从巴厘戏剧中获得的启示
    预示着并引导着二十世纪后半叶西方的戏剧探索,东方戏剧对西方现代派
    戏剧的影响可以从阿尔托一巴厘戏剧一二十世纪后半叶西方戏剧实践中看
    出。
     第三部分在第二部分具体论述的基础上,尝试由浅入深、层层递进地
    得出以下结论。第一,尽管存在误解,作为巴厘戏剧翻译者的阿尔托,应
    该被看作是西方现代戏剧借鉴东方戏剧最有感悟力与创造力的先驱;第二,
    以阿尔托为代表的西方戏剧家所预言的现代派戏剧对于东方戏剧的借鉴,
    其真正指归仍是西方戏剧,母体源自古希腊戏剧;第三,在借鉴与复归的
    基础上,进一步讨论东方主义与原始主义的关系,揭示“现代”的意义;
    第四,明确指出巴厘戏剧一现代派戏剧一古希腊戏剧所触及的是戏剧的内部
    实质,旨在以历史的名义,从戏剧的功能危机出发,走一条重回“理想国”
    的复归之路。 [英文摘要]:     Bali theatre influenced the West theatre of post-modernism through Artaud
    and his theory of "cruel theater". This dissertation makes this "historical event"
    a case, to analyze the pattern how the West theatre of modenilsm was inspired
    by and developed from the theater of the East, and try to argues that the spirit
    that the modernism theatre found in Bali or East, is also the spirit they try to
    revive in West classical theatre. Both the theatre of East and Ancient are the
    "other" of modern western theatre they use to transcend themselves. The
    dissertation is composed of mainly three parts:
    The first part discusses the relation of Bali theatre and Artaud, one of the
    most important cases the Eastern theater influence the Western theater. The
    influence went indirectly, through a cruel prophetic, Anonin Artaud and his
    inspiring academic work . Bali theatre shows different
    aspects of meanings to different perspectives, from anthropology to theatre.
    However, theater, as its most remarkable art characteristics, entered into their
    visual field and became the focus of it. I compare Bali theatre in Artaud's
    understanding and Bali theatre in reality reveal that the "discover" of the Bali
    theatre is actually "invent", Bali theatre is only a metaphor expresses that many
    artists got more and more conscious of the crisis of theatre losing their central
    role in social life in modern time.
    The second part discusses the influence Bali theatre to the post-modernism
    theater, focuses on the six essences of drama: play language, interpretation,
    playhouse, audiences and the actors, theater and life, with the theory of Artaud
    and the practice of Grotowski, Brook, Mnouchikine, Schechner and Barba as
    cases to study All of these prove the inspiration indicated and led the
    Avant-garde theatre in the second half of 20th century. And the significance of
    the influence that the Eastern theater gave to the Western theater could be made
    out from Artad-Bali theater-West theater in the second half of 20th century
    On the base of the discussion in the second part, the third pat tries to make
    the following conclusions, First, Artaud, as the translator of Bali theatre, with all
    the misreading, should be regarded as one of the most important forerunners
    who introduce East theatre; Second, the "discovery" which the West theater
    made to the East theater was also a "revival" of the Greek theater.It is the way a
    great tradition of at identifies itself; Third, on this foundation, I consider it a
    dialectics of "Orientalism" and "Originalism", which show the secret of
    modernism; last, my study of Bali theater-West modern theater-Greek theater,
    touched the essential mesning of the drama. It wanted to revert to Utopia from
    the functional crisis in the name of history.
        
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