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论4/3/2法对提高英语口语流利性的影响
时间:2012-09-07 浏览次数:1045次 无忧论文网
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【中文题名】 论4/3/2法对提高英语口语流利性的影响 【英文题名】 A Study of the Effects of the 4/3/2 Technique on the Fluency Improvement in Oral English 【中文摘要】 4/3/2法(4/3/2活动)是一种以提高学习者口语流利性为目的而设计的活动。在活动中,练习者面对三个不同的对象分别讲述一件内容相同的事情,但每次讲述时间从四分钟减到三分钟,再减到两分钟。 本文在前人有关第二语言口语流利性的研究基础之上,考察了4/3/2法对非英语专业学生英语口语流利性的影响。Riggenbach(1991)指出,流利性是一种非常复杂的现象,需要从不同的角度对其进行界定。语速快、停顿次数少和停顿时间短并不能全面地反映第二语言口语流利性。针对4/3/2活动的特点,笔者认为练习者口语流利性的改善应该体现为:在时间压力 【英文摘要】 The 4/3/2 technique (or "the 4/3/2 activity") is devised for providing spoken fluency practice for learners of English as a second language. In the 4/3/2 activity, learners tell the same story three times to different listeners with one minute reduced for each retelling. Based on the previous studies on L2 oral fluency, the present study investigates the effects of the 4/3/2 technique on ten non-English major students' oral fluency improvement. As Riggenbach (1991) puts it, fluency is a highly complex p 【中文关键词】 4/3/2法. 第二语言口语流利性. 时间性指标. 语言指标. 话语策略指标. 【英文关键词】 the 4/3/2 technique. L2 oral fluency. temporal indices. linguistic indices. performing indices. Acknowlegements 7-8 Abstract(English) 8-11 Abstract(Chinese) 11-13 List of Tables and Figures 13-14 Abbreviations Used in the Present Thesis 14-15 Chapter One Introduction 15-27 1.1 The 4/3/2 Technique 15-20 1.2 The Aim and Scope of the Present Study 20-25 1.3 The Organization of This Thesis 25-27 Chapter Two Literature Review 27-72 2.1 Oral Fluency 27-50 2.1.1 Definitions of L1 and L2 Oral Fluency 27-30 2.1.2 Indices Commonly Employed in Measuring L2 Oral Fluency 30-35 2.1.3 The Interpretative Models of Fluency Development 35-42 2.1.3.1 Need for Application of Speech Production Models 35-37 2.1.3.2 Levelt's Model of Speech Production 37-38 2.1.3.3 Anderson's Adaptive Control of Thought (ACT) 38-57 2.1.4 Nation's Evaluation Model of the 4/3/2 Technique 42-45 2.1.5 The Effects of Repetition on Oral Fluency Improvement 45-49 2.1.6 Learner Factors and Fluency Improvement 49-50 2.2 A General Framework for the Present Study 50-70 2.2.1 Redefining L2 Oral Fluency in the 4/3/2 Technique 50-51 2.2.2 Fluency Indices Employed in the Present Study 51-55 2.2.3 Overall Structure of the Present Framework 55-82 2.2.3.1 Integrating the 4/3/2 Technique with Levelt's Model, Anderson's Model and the Fluency Indices 57-62 2.2.3.2 Integrating the 4/3/2 Technique with Nation's Evaluation Model and the Fluency Indices 62-65 2.2.3.3 Integrating the 4/3/2 Technique with Repetition and the Fluency Indices 65-67 2.2.3.4 Integrating the 4/3/2 Technique with Learner Factors and the Fluency Indices 67-99 2.3 Summary 70-72 Chapter Three Methods and Procedures 72-93 3.1 Hypotheses 72-73 3.2 Subjects 73-74 3.3 Task Topic 74-75 3.4 Procedures 75-78 3.5 Subjects' Oral Production 78-95 3.5.1 Identifcation of Pauses and Calculation of the Temporal Indices 82-86 3.5.2 Identification of Error, T-unit, Subordinate Clause and Calculation of the Linguistic Indices 86-89 3.5.3 Identification of Repairs and Calculation of the Performing Indices 89-95 Chapter Four Results and Discussion 93-129 4.1 Quantitative Analysis 95-119 4.1.1 Temporal Indices 95-104 4.1.1.1 Speech Rate (SR) 99-100 4.1.1.2 Articulation Rate (AR) 100-101 4.1.1.3 Phonation/time Ratio (PTR) 101-102 4.1.1.4 Mean Length of Run (MLR) 102-103 4.1.1.5 Average Length of Pause (ALP) 103-105 4.1.2 Linguistic Indices 104-107 4.1.2.1 Ratio of Error-free T-units (REFT) 105-106 4.1.2.2 Subordinate Clauses per T-unit (SCT) 106-109 4.1.3 Performing Indices 107-112 4.1.3.1 Repairs per 100 Syllables (R100) 109-110 4.1.3.2 Self-corrections per 100 Syllables (SC100) 110-111 4.1.3.3 Repetitions and Hesitations per 100 Syllables (RH100) 111-115 4.1.4 Summary of the Quantitative Analysis 112-115 4.1.5 Possible Explanations for the Exceptions and Small Improvement in Linguistic Complexity in the Experiment 115-120 4.1.5.1 Possible Explanations for the Exceptions in the Experiment 115-117 4.1.5.2 Possible Explanations for the Small Improvement in Linguistic Complexity in the Experiment 117-123 4.2 Qualitative Analysis 119-129 4.2.1 Control of Content 120-122 4.2.2 Devices for Gaining Time for Planning 122-127 4.2.2.1 Pauses 123-126 4.2.2.2 Lexical Repetitions and Verbal Fillers 126-140 4.2.3 Summary of the Qualitative Analysis 127-140 Chapter Five Conclusions and Implications 129-135 5.1 Conclusions of the Present Study 129-131 5.2 Implications of the 4/3/2 Technique in Teaching 131-133 5.3 Limitations of the Present Study and Recommendations for Future Research 133-140 Bibliography 135-140 Appendix 140-144
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