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不立文字 直指人心——论禅与艺术的共通内在心理机制
时间:2011-02-21 浏览次数:1583次 无忧论文网
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艺术学
艺术美学艺术美学
    禅宗作为移植自印度佛教古树的中国奇葩,其所蕴含的丰富美学内涵深刻地作用于中国美学史。本文试图从深层角度挖掘禅宗与艺术联姻的契机、过程和结果。全文共分为三部分:
    第一部分:绪论,探讨禅宗美学研究的重大意义,总结前人对禅宗与艺术关系的研究成果,选取从心理机制入手的研究角度。
    第二部分:正文,分四章。第一章首先以禅宗与艺术共通的“以心为本”入手,挖掘禅宗与艺术共通契机。接着,论证“不立文字,心心相印”的禅悟与艺术的心理发生机制有着相通之处,此关系使二者在长期的交融中相互影响。
    第二章从主体的角度讨论禅宗的自性和艺术活动主体精神之间在重自力而非他力、从客观世界中体验自我和具有鲜明的个体独创性这三方面实现了互通。
    第三章从认识方法的角度,论证了禅宗顿悟思维方式与艺术思维中直觉直感、艺术沉思和艺术灵感闪现的无意识有着原始的相通,肯定禅宗在与艺术交融的过程中对中国的审美心理体验和艺术思维产生了积极影响。
    第四章从作用结果来看,禅宗与艺术之间共通的心理机制,使中国文学艺术从唐代以后表现出心灵化和意境化的倾向。禅境与艺境的自由交融是中国古典美学所追求的至高审美体验,更是一种至高无上的人生境界。
    第三部分:结语,笔者在讨论禅与艺术二者共通的心理机制过程中运用禅宗伟大的中观之法,超越二元论束缚,即可发现:禅与艺术存在深层意义的交融,二者关系早已是禅中有艺,艺中有禅,难分界限。乘着禅宗的双翼,中国古典美学进入了艺术心理学时代。 [英文摘要]:     
    Zen, a rare and beautiful Chinese follower transplanted from the Indian Buddhism old tree, contains the rich esthetics connotation which acted on the Chinese esthetics history profoundly. This article attempts to discuss deeply the occasion, process and results of the alliance of the Zen and Art.
    The article is divided into three parts: In the first part, “Introduction”, I talk about the significance of Zen esthetics research and summarize previous research results on the relations of Zen and Art. All the selected researches are collected through  psychological mechanisms. 
    In the second part, the Text includes four chapters. First of all, I start with the common idea for Zen and Art, which is called “mind-centered”, to find out the occasion for their appliance. Then I prove that there are common points in the physical and mental mechanisms, thinking procedure and rule between the Zen and Art. In addition, the two affect one another in the long way of mingling.
    In the second step, I mainly talk over that the self-reliance of Zen and the spirit of sbject in art activities intercommunicate in three aspects: depending on self rather than aid from other, experiencing the objective world personally and appearing distinct individual originality.
    In the fourth chapter, I demonstrate through the epistemology, that there are original common between instant enlightenment of Zen and the intuition thinking way, meditation and unconsciousness of artistic thought. Besides, I affirm that Zen produced positive effect on Chinese esthetic psychological experience and the artistic thought in the connecting of Zen and Art.
    In the last chapter of part two, I dissertate that as the result from the similar mental mechanism between Zen and Art, the Chinese literary and arts has been showing immaterial and artistic tendency after the Tang Dynasty. The casual blending of Zen and Art becomes the supreme state for art and life pursued in Chinese classical aesthetics.
    In the last part, “Conclusion”, I find that as far as I use the ‘intermediate perspective’ method and try to transcend the dualism, I will see Zen and Art can’t be separated because they share profound significance and exists in each other. Riding on Zen’s wings, the Chinese classical esthetics entered the artistic psychology age.    
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